Harvard African-American Studies Professor Henry Louis Gates scriptwriter of the television show “Finding Your Roots,” reports the average African American is 65% Sub-Saharan African (Black Africa--south of the Sahara Desert), 29% European and 2% Native American. Professor Gates’ research may be true if the statement is translated to say, “What constitutes Native American Genetic Ancestry if Indigenous Black-skinned people were in the Americas 45,000 to 56,000 BCE, and the Mongoloid People who crossed the Bering Straits arrived 12,000 years BCE?”
Gates’ research is based on statistical information and not archaeology, linguistics, or craniometric data. Population genetic studies lack any definite data to support the genetic data (Winters, 2016). The research is based on haplogroup characteristics of that group or population in which Eurocentric historical studies currently define mankind.
The same information may be presented throughout this website under Determiner DNA
(Just for Reinforcement Purposes)
Genetic ancestry/DNA Testing for SALE uses statistical testing to measure lineage and family history regarding a person’s relatives. The ancestry tests measure maternal and paternal lines of descendants living in geographic regions (e.g., West Africa, Europe, East Asia, and the Americas) well-known or considered central in colonial-era population movements. Blanket Definition: White people come from Europe, Black people come from Africa, Native Americans come from America, and Yellow people come from Asia.
Unless a person is familiar with world history, a bias is created separating ancestry into sociopolitical groups. Knowledge of diversity and genetic contributions to ancestry of populations in other parts of the world (e.g., East Africa, South Asia, Arabian Peninsula, and Southeast Asia) becomes limited if a person does not know the historical outlines. For instance, those in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe—Southern Italy, Portugal, and Span were invaded and ruled by the Moors for 800 years in 711 AD. Today the Moors are referred to as Muslims denoting a North African beginning (labeled Caucasian). The people of that region were once referred to as Hamitic and swarthy in color rather than say, "African DNA." Mexico was invaded and inhabited by Spain in 1519. So here we go again.
The Lemba Jews of South Africa carry the Cohen modal haplotype (CMH) at a frequency higher than found in the Jewish populations modern day Israel. Ashkenazim Jews did not come into existence until 6th Century AD. The two distinct Jewish groups living in Palestine are Sephardic (North Africa) and Ashkenazim Jews from Eastern Europe. In the Lemba Clan known as the Buba Clan, 53% of the males carry the unique DNA signature of Jewish priests. The Lemba carry a DNA sequence that is distinctive to the Cohanim, a hereditary set of Jewish priests. More than half of the men in an Lemba elite family contain the same genetic marker on the Y Chromosome as the one found in a study of Kohanim — male Jews who claim to be descended from the Jewish priestly line of Aaron, brother of Moses.
The average person doubles their number of ancestors with each generation because everyone has two parents. Going back only ten generations (between 200 and 300 years) in a person’s genealogy has 1024 ancestors. Going back further, each of us has more ancestors than we have sections of DNA - which means there are many ancestors from whom we have inherited no DNA. Genetic connections to historical ethnic groups like "Viking" or "Zulu" become vague. People's genetics do not reflect specific groups. Human history involves an incredible amount of migration meaning thousands of possible versions to genealogy.
The principal theory accepted by AMERICAN HISTORIANS states the first Americans arrived in a single wave across the Bering Straits 12,000 years ago, and all Native American populations today descend from this one group. How can Native Americans be the first Americans when they have no previous civilizations, artifacts or history until 12,000 BC in the Americas? Winters (2003), physical anthropologists have never accepted the Clovis View because skeletal remains have been found throughout the American Continent far older than 12,000 BC.
Plenty of genetic evidence exists of an African presence in the Americas. First, one must get away from the idea that Africans left Africa 60,000 years ago. There were other migrations out of Africa. For example, the Khoisan who founded the Grimaldi/Aurignacian culture in Europe and left Africa 40,000 years ago. The Pygmy people who were usually referred to as the Anu, left Africa between 20-15,000 years before. The pygmy people, as evidence of their presence on every continent had an extensive civilization in the past, even though, they are hunter-gatherers today.
There is no way the first Americans could have come from Asia, because the Baringa passage between Asia and the American continent did not become passable until 12,000 years ago, but as early as 40,000 years ago, there were American communities in South America. Research points to the first Africans to settle America were Khoisan. The San would have carried the mtDNA haplogroup N into the Americas. The major American lineages A, B, C, are all descendants from haplogroup (hg) N.
The genetic analyses back up skeletal studies suggesting that groups in the Amazon Rain-forests share a common ancestor with indigenous Australians and New Guineans. Not one but two groups migrated across Asian and Australian Continents to give rise to the first Americans living on the Western part of North, Central, and South America 45,000 to 56,000 years BCE.
When Columbus arrived in the New World 1492, he found that African merchants were trading goods and living in the Americas among the Amerindians (NOTICE AMONG) (Lawrence 1962). Other European explorers and colonists were shocked to hear Black-skinned people previously settled the Americas. (Lawrence 1962,1987; Quarterages 1889; Rufinesque, 1832). The Americas were home to a youthful Negroid Continent (Winters, 2013).
1) The oldest skeletal remains found in the Americas are of Black-skinned people.
2) The Olmec, Mound Builder's and Mayans had over a 56,000-year history in the Americas. Artifacts--castles temples, astrology, surgery, and pyramid (mounds) structures were left behind as evidence, but once again the American people were referred to as “Red Native American.” Mayan skeletons with Sickle Cell Anemia have been found.
3) Kinship occurrences exist between African Language and Native American Family of Languages.
The Baja California Study indicates the initial settlement of the American Continent was driven by Southeast Asians who occupied Australia 60,000 years ago and expanded into the Americas about 13,500 years ago, prior to Mongoloid people arriving from northeast Asia about 12,000 years before. The Negrito Oceanic Tribes currently inhabiting Malaysia/Indonesia, New Guinea, The Philippians, Thailand, Twain, Vietnam, Papua, and Australia have been in existence (dates) 60,000 years.
Archaeologists have found sites from Canada to Chile that range between 20,000 – 40,000 years old. These sites are the Old Crow Basin (38,000 BCE) in Canada; Orogrande Cave (36,000 BCE) in the US; and Pedra Furada (45,000 BCE). The oldest inhabitants were in South America before the ice melted at the Bering Strait and moved north as the ice melted. At one time, America was a Negroid Continent.
Those who are researchers have focused on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is used by geneticists to examine how populations are related. mtDNA is more abundant than DNA found in a cell’s nucleus, so it’s easier to study. Researchers focus on haplotypes, which are sequences of genes that mutate more slowly than the rest of the mtDNA.
Most researchers assume the occurrence of the R1-M173 gene among Native Americans is the result of European admixture. This view is not supported by the phylogeography of haplogroup R1. This does not correspond to the former territories of the European colonies with the highest population densities. The location of this paternal clade (contains one ancestor which can be a population, or a species and all its descendants). The research does match the former centers of Black Native American occupation and the forced migration of Mongoloid and Black Native Americans into the American Southwest.
This validates the presence of R1 among Mongoloid Native Americans of Mongoloid-Black Native American admixture. This Indian-African admixture would have been between Sub-Saharan African (SSA) subclade and the Black Native Americans already living here at the advent of the colonial era mating with Mongoloid Native Americans. The African specific R-M173 yDNA form a Sub-Saharan African subclade, which in association with the SSA R-M269 subclade in Africa, which reveals there was gene flow from SSA toward mongoloid people in North America, probably during the past 500 years
The most predominate y-chromosome of Native Americans in North America is R-M173. R-M173 is found in the Northeastern and Southwestern parts of the United States along with mtDNA haplogroup X (25%). Both haplogroups are found in Africa, but are absent in Siberia. There are varying frequencies of y-chromosome M-173 in Africa and Eurasia. Whereas only between 8% and 10% of M-173 is carried by Eurasians, 82% of the carriers of this y-chromosome are found in Africa (Winters, 2010, 2011b).
This is very interesting given the presence of R-M173 found among many American Indian groups. R-M173 among the North American Algonquian group range from Ojibwe (79%), Chipewyan (62%), Seminole (50%), Cherokee (47%), Dogrib (40%) and Papago (38%) (Malhiet al., 2008). The African origin of this haplogroup is evident among the Seminoles who continue to show the African phenotype.
Due to Indian slavery in North America, the Black Native American population was absorbed by the larger SSA slave population. Over time, people forgot there had been Black Native Americans and Mongoloid Native Americans.
In fact, the BNA heritage and land rights were stolen by the government, as all Blacks in America, no matter their ancestry were assigned the status of former African slave. Gilio-Whitaker (2015) wrote, “As the Indian slave trade gave way to the African slave trade by the late 1700’s, Native American women began to intermarry with imported Africans, producing mixed-race offspring whose native identities became obscured through time.” In the colonial project to eliminate the landscape of Indians, these mixed-race people simply became known as "colored" people through bureaucratic erasure in public records.
Walter Plecker (Racial Integrity Act of 1924) required that a racial description of every person be recorded at birth and divided society into only two classifications: white and colored. The Act of 1924 defined race by the "one-drop rule," defining as "colored" persons with any African or Native American ancestry. In some cases, such as in Virginia, even when people were designated as Indians on birth or death certificates or other public records, their records were changed to reflect “colored.”
Census takers, determining a person’s race by their looks, often recorded mixed-race people as simply black, not Indian. The result today is a population of people of Native American heritage and identity (particularly in the Northeast) who are not recognized by society at large, sharing similar circumstances with the Freedmen of the Cherokee and other Five Civilized Tribes.”
The Negrito people show strong physical similarities with Negrillos African Diminutive people (Pygmies) but are genetically closer to other Southeast Asian populations. They represent an early split from the southern coast migrants from Africa. The word "Negrito" is the Spanish diminutive Negro, used to mean "little Black person." Diminutive People live in rain-forests not only in Africa but South America and India.
The Asian lineage leading to First Americans is the most anciently deviated; whereas, the Asian lineages that contributed some of the DNA to Eskimo–Aleut speakers and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada are more closely related to present-day East Asian populations. The Suruí and Karitiana people of the Amazon had stronger ties to indigenous groups in Australasia—Australians, New Guineans and Andaman Islanders—than to Eurasians.
Research repeatedly shows that Black people where the first inhabitants globally with large civilizations in Africa, America, Asia and Europe, but somehow after Caucasians came on the scene, black and white mixed, and have wiped out at least 3/4 of the coal black-skinned population worldwide except in Africa.
Following the archaeological findings alone will show these civilizations were renamed or somehow disappeared into thin air through revisionist history. Labeled/titled “African Americans” didn't come from Africa but rather were the original Black American Natives when the Europeans showed up in the Americas.
Going outside of the United States to study American History in other countries, a person will find time-and-time again a completely different description of Native Americans than what is depicted in the US. John Henry Walker, a famous Canadian engraver, illustrates African, Asian, and Malaysian as Black people which also includes Americans depicted as “Black Indians.”
The shape of the skulls changes between 9,000 and 7,000 years ago, from being exclusively Negroid to exclusively Mongoloid. Mongoloid people from the north invaded and wiped out the original Americans. The pre-European Fuegians, who lived stone age-style lives until this century, show hybrid skull features resulting from intermarrying between Mongoloid and Negroid people.
The Black Asians were one of the first colonizers of America after the analysis made on an 11,000-year skull dug in Brazil in 1974. The fossil was found 13 m (43 ft.) deep in Lapa Vermelha IV, the region of Lagoa Santa (Minas Gerais). In 1995, the skull was put under investigation.
Marquez (1956) alleged the Otomi of Mexico, the Caracoles of Haiti, the Arguaos of Cutara, the Arayos of the Orinoco, the Porcijis, the Matayas of Brazil, the Manabis of Quito, and the Chuanas of Darien were descendants of African people. R.B. Dixon (1923) a physical anthropologist claimed that the Negroid strain was most visible in the Otomi, Tarahumare and Pima.
Alphose de Quatrefages, in the Human Species, claimed that the Black tribes of Latin America include the Choco, Manabis, Yaruras, Guarani, Charrus, Yamassi and Tzendal Chontal, in addition to numerous ethnic groups along the Orinoco river in Venezuela, and the Isthmus of Darien.
The major African group to settle ancient America was the Manding people. In the Southwestern United States, Cabeza da Vaca, said the Mendica people were a dominant group. This word mendica, agrees with the term Mandinka used to denote the Manding speaking people. (Ceram 1971) Moreover in Mexico and Panama we have many place names that allude to ancient Manding presence. For example, in Panama we find the Sierre de Mali mountain range in Darien east of the Gulf of San Miguel, the Manding River, and the Manding Bay.
The ancient Americans represent two populations, Paleoamericans who were phenotypically African, Australian or Melanesian and a mongoloid population that appears to have arrived in the Americas after 6000 BC. The determination of the Paleoamericans as members of the Black Variety is not a new phenomenon. Howells (1973, 1989, 1995) using multivariate analyses, determined that the Easter Island population was characterized as Australo-Melanesian, while other skeletons from South America were found to be related to Africans and Australians (Coon, 1962; Dixon, 2001; Howell, 1989, 1995; Lahr, 1996).
The African-Australo-Melanesian morphology was widespread in North and South America. For example, skeletal remains belonging to the Black Variety have been found in Brazil (Neves, Powell, Prous and Ozolins, 1998; Neves et al., 1998), Columbian Highlands (Neves et al., 1995; Powell, 2005), Mexico (Gonza’lez-Jose, 2012), Florida (Howells, 1995), and Southern Patazonia (Neves et al., 1999a, 1999b). Today archaeologists have found sites from Canada to Chile that range between 20, 000 and 65,000 years old (Imhotep, 2011; Guidon and Arnoud, 1991; Guidon and Delibris, 1986, Guidon et al., 1996; NYT, 2015). There are numerous sites in North and South America which are over 35, 000 years old. These sites are the Old Crow Basin (c.38, 000 B.C.) in Canada; Orogrande Cave (c.36, 000 B.C.) in the United States; and Pedra Furada (c.45, 000 B.C.) (Imhotep, 2011). Given the fact that the earliest dates for habitation of the American continent occur below Canada in South America is highly suggestive of the fact that the earliest settlers on the American continents came from Africa before the Ice melted.
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