Some “card-carrying” Cherokees currently have NO ASIATIC DNA. The level of Haplogroup T in the Cherokee (26.9%) approximates the same percentage of 25% or what is found in Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Yemen. Egypt is one of the only lands where T attains a major position among the various mitochondrial lineages. Skin color and facial features are primarily like people who live in these countries.
The phylogenetic profile of R-M173 supports an ancient migration of Kushites from Africa to Eurasia. This expansion of an African Kushite population probably took place during the Neolithic period. Seventy-six out of 79 Native Americans have R lineage chromosomes belonging to R-P25 representing 73% of the Naïve American population.
Although European/African admixture is less likely to have occurred in the same period, this was the most frequent haplogroup (22.7%) in the Siberian study (Karafet et al. 2002) and may represent a very rare additional founding haplogroup of Asian admixture.
The presence of R1 denotes the African heritage of many North American Native American populations. Some researchers claim that NA must have European heritage because some populations carry haplogroup R-M269.
The DNA does not deny the possibility that 20% of African ancestry is of Native American origin. When Europeans got to what is considered North America, there were already Black Native Americans. The Nanticoke who were Algonquian migrated from Labrador, Canada and some through the Great Lakes. Both groups used Mande numerals. The Nanticoke and Yamasse were sold into slavery along with most coastal tribes.
The earliest settlers on the American continents came from Africa before the Ice melted at the Bering Strait and moved northward as the ice melted. The earliest dates for habitation of the American continent occur below Canada and in South America. Numerous sites in North and South America are over 35,000 years old. These sites are the Old Crow Basin (c.38,000 B.C.) in Canada; Orogrande Cave (c.36,000 B.C.) in the United States; and Pedra Furada (c.45,000 B.C.) in Brazil.
Some examples are the appearance of pebble tools at Monte Verde, Chile (c.32,000 B.C.), and rock paintings at Pedra Furada in Brazil (c.22,000 B.C.) and mastodon hunting in Venezuela and Colombia (c.13,000 B.C.), have led some researchers to believe that the Americas was first settled from South America.
The Native American (NA) mtDNA haplogroups A2, B2, C1 and D1 are rooted in African L3. For example, the NA haplogroup A2i is represented by the T3308A has a transversion with an insertion of T3308C. This parallels the T3308C transition in the African haplogroup L1b.
Moreover, the majority of Native America (NA) haplogroup R is M-173, not M269. The Khoisan, Pygmy, Fula and etc. carry M269. In Equatorial Guinea, 17% of Africans carry R1b1-P25. This indicates the Y-chromosome was widespread in Africa easily transferring to NA by Pre-Columbian Blacks, Black Europeans or African slaves who were mainly shipped to the U.S. from the Senegambia and Guinea region of West Africa. As a result, the presence of between 19-22% AA males carrying R1, is probably evidence of their Native American heritage.
Never was there extensive intermarriage between Northeastern Native Americans and Europeans. Therefore, Europeans cannot account for the spread of R-M173 among Native Americans. The presence of R1 among NA probably accounts for a high percentage of the 22% of AA that carry this haplogroup. You add these AAs to the 10% that carry the Native American mtDNA, and there are 20% or more of AAs that have a NA heritage.
The original English colony of Carolina (South Carolina) established in 1670, estimates that between 1650 and 1730 at least 50,000 Indigenous people (and likely more due to transactions hidden to avoid paying government tariffs and taxes) were exported by the English alone to their Caribbean outposts. Between 1670 and 1717 far more Indigenous Americans (Natives) were exported than Africans were imported. In southern coastal regions entire tribes were exterminated through slavery rather than disease or war. In a law passed in 1704, Indian slaves were conscripted to fight in wars for the colony long before the American Revolution. Six hundred thousand (600,000) American Indigenous Natives were enslaved between 1521 and 1776 which amounts to more than the number of Africans brought to the Americas by Europeans. Examples are shown below:
- Natchez people sold by French into slavery in West Indies.
- The Creek of Georgia were slaves in Central, South, and across North America
- The Wampanoag Tribe (Martha's Vineyard) died from Leptospirosis (Weils Syndrome) that killed 40% of the tribe. The male survivors were sold into slavery in the West Indies. Women and children sold into slavery in New England.
Slavery was part of the larger strategy to depopulate the land to make way for European settlers. As early as 1636 after the Pequot War in which 300 Pequot’s were massacred, those who remained were sold into slavery and sent to Bermuda. Major slaving ports included Boston, Salem, Mobile, and New Orleans. From those ports Indians were shipped to Barbados by the English, Martinique and Guadalupe by the French and the Antilles by the Dutch. Indian slaves were also sent to the Bahamas as the "breaking grounds" where they might've been transported back to New York or Antigua.
At least 3,000 Americans (so-called Indians) are known to have been shipped to Europe between 1493 and 1501 (Columbus Expeditions). Most were sent to the Seville area, where they show up in the slave markets as Negroes. These are major contradictions to the whole slave trade myth. Blacks were always in America! The "Missing Indians" are Negroes! The slaves sold on the slave markets in the South were initially the Black people from right here in this Hemisphere. As they took the lands here, they enslaved the inhabitants of those lands who were Black.
The tens of millions of Americans (so-called Indians) who disappeared after 1492 did not all die in the 'holocaust' inflicted within America. Many thousand were sent to Europe and Africa as slaves. The whole slave trade myth is that the whole story was given to us in reverse. A mass colony of Africans were not shipped from Africa to America, but the truth is that Black Indians were shipped from America to Europe! They were then shipped from Spain to Africa as commodity for African resources. These Black Indians (now mistaken as Africans) were shipped back to America and classified as "African Slaves." This part of our history is what the school systems fail to mention in history programs!
Earliest Mounds in Monroe, LA 3400 BC
Indigenous peoples of the Eastern and Southeastern woodlands today have extensive African descent, such as the Narragansett, Pequot, Lumbee, and other tribes. The Muscogee are descendants of the Mississippian culture peoples, who built earthwork mounds at their regional chiefdoms located throughout the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries.
Indian Freedmen guaranteed 1866 Treaty Rights within the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole Nations, found themselves excluded from benefiting in the 1983 Reagan-era Native American Reservation Economy Initiatives, because the birth certificates of subsequent generations of Ethnic Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks and Seminoles indicated that they were “Negro”, “Black”, “Colored” and “African Americans,” therefore, “they were not Indians.”
At a Native American Burial Ground in Little Rock, Arkansas, African American graves were found among prehistoric Indian mounds Members of the Quapaw Tribe. The Quapaw Tribe members were taken into slavery by Europeans. While news reporters try to explain how this happened, logic prevails to say maybe both groups were the same people who were the Mound Builders. The burial sites were discovered on land purchased by the tribe in 2013, which was part of the historic Thiboult Plantation near the Little Rock Port Authority, and, before that, part of the tribe’s historic Arkansas reservation.
According to Africans and Native Americans, Native Americans or Indians were classified as Negroes and Blacks in the slave’s books of Seville Spain and elsewhere. On page 29; “Slaves from Terra Nova show up in the slave markets of Seville and Valencia very soon after 1500. For example; in Valencia during the period to 1516, we find in 1503 Miguel, Manne, in 1505 Juan and Pedro, in 1507 Antonio and Juan Amarco, in 1515 Ali, now Melchor, in 1516 Catalina...They were all classified as Negroes...” If we were first brought to North America around 1619 or even 1555, for that matter, then how were they taking slaves from Newfoundland to Europe? Keep in mind that one of the "Native Americans" even had the name "Ali" and all were classified as Negro once they reached Yalencia. How did a Native American in 1515 have the Moorish name "Ali"?
In 1993, the United Nations Center for Human Rights, recognized the Washitaw de Dugdahmoundyah Muur Empire as the Oldest Indigenous group of people on Earth. The registered Project # 215/93 supervened. From 15,000,000 to 20,000,000 slaves arrived in the Americas (North, Central, and South America) between 1540 and 1850 over—a 310 year period (according to US History books).
Christopher Columbus Diaries
Christopher Columbus became the first man known in history to send the first slaves across the Atlantic. Other nations rushed to emulate Columbus. In 1501, the Portuguese began to depopulate the Beotuk Indians to Cape Verde as slaves. The Black Indian slavery destroyed the Indian nations of Natchez, Yamasee, and Pequot’s. The first African slave raid took place in 1505 and was spearheaded by Columbus' son (Diego Columbus).
When the Moors (Indians) of America began dying and committing suicide the labor was replaced with slaves from the Sahara in West Africa. Also, the gold and silver that Columbus extracted from America fueled a 400% inflation that eroded the economies of non-European nations and helped Europe to develop a global market system. Africa suffered a great economical blow. The Trans-Saharan trade collapsed because America supplied more precious gems than the African West Coast. African traders now only had one commodity that Europe wanted, slaves! African Sultans thus sold their own black people into slavery to whites. It is safe to say that Columbus is solely responsible for the slavery of the Moors from West to East and from East to West.
After Columbus found what he thought was the eastern edge of India on his first voyage, he found the natives he encountered “ought to make good and skilled servants” according to his diaries. He also at first expressed an eagerness to bring religion to the natives, saying “I think they can very easily be made Christians, for they seem to have no religion.”
Columbus didn’t just not let religion get in the way of his profiting off slavery: he actually believed God embraced his slave business. On his third voyage, Columbus wrote during his return to Hispaniola in 1498, “From here one might send, in the name of the Holy Trinity, as many slaves as could be sold…”People think the mounds were built by the Indians, or by the ancestors of the historically known Indian groups. This was widely disregarded for a number of reasons including early historical documents, hoaxes and the fact that Indians had no connection to the mounds. Most of those Indians moved to the Ohio territory from farther east only a few decades before, and therefore had no connection to the mounds. After the US government forcibly 'removed' most of the remaining Indians from the east in the late 1820s and early 1830s, there were few Indians around to correct the misunderstanding. The Mound Builder question became one of the most popular puzzles of the 19th century.
Historically known Indigenous people known as Indians of the east were occasionally found in the mounds. Similarities in stone tools between Indians and Mound builders existed. It was a common misperception - that Eastern Indians had not been farmers - and when Squire and Davis combined it with their observation that 'defensive enclosures' were most common along the northern edge of the distribution of mounds, they derived the conclusion that Indians had attacked the Mound builders persistently from the north.
The Yamasee is a direct descendant of the Olmecs through the Washitaw Moors. The Washitaw is a derivative of the term 'Wichita' who are known as 'Kitikitish' meaning, "Raccoon eyes." This referred to the black Native Americans because of their black faces, thus the term 'Coons' was used to identify a black person. The Yamasee lived in Georgia on the Ocmulgee River near Macon, Georgia and where early Yamasee mounds were discovered. Today, Macon is also the home of the Harriet Tubman African-American Museum. The Yamasse is the mother tribe of the Creeks, Seminoles, Apalachees, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Catawbas, and Cherokee.
Fewer than 10% of African-American mtDNAs match mtDNA sequences from a single African region. Few African Americans are able to trace their mtDNA lineages to a particular region of Africa, and even fewer will be able to trace their mtDNA to a single ethnic group. The excuse is that no firm conclusions should be made until a much larger database is available. The same conclusion can be made with Native American tribes. It is clear, however, that when identical mtDNA haplotypes are shared among many ethnic groups from different parts of Africa, it is impossible to determine which single ethnic group was the source of a particular maternal ancestor based on the mtDNA sequence. The sub-Saharan mtDNA sequences have identified the most common haplotypes.
In both of the African-American samples, approximately 40% of the mtDNA sequences do not match any sequence in any other ethnic group. More than half of these sequences differ from multiple database sequences at a single position. Less than 10% of African-American mtDNAs matched mtDNA sequences from a single African region suggests that as few as one in nine African Americans may be able to trace their mtDNA lineage to a particular region of Africa.
It is famously well known that Africans have the most genetic diversity of human populations, arguably more than all other populations combined (from mtDNA, Y lineages and more recent autosomal studies). There is population structure, Africa did not remain in stasis after the ancestors of non-Africans left ~75,000 years ago. This paper addresses some of the deeper questions about African structure.
Since most Native Americans do not look like people from China but more like the Ket People from Siberia (who look like Africans), it is easy to take for granted the Native Americans are no more than a mixture of the Asiatic and Indigenous people preset in America when they arrived 11,500 years ago.
Bard of Ely. Were the Washitaw the first Americans and the ancient mound builders? http://bardofely.hubpages.com/hub/The-Washitaw-were-the-first-Americans-and-ancient-mound-builders
Imhotep David, Ph.D. (2011). The First Americans Were Africans: Documented Evidence
Lauber, Almon Wheeler. Indian Slavery in Colonial Times within the Present Limits of the United States. (http://archive.org/stream/indianslavery00laubrich/indianslavery00laubrich_djvu.txt).
Winters, Clyde A. (2010). The Kushite Spread of Haplogroup R1*-M173 from Africa to Eurasia. Retrieved from http://www.maxwellsci.com/print/crjbs/v2-294-299.pdf