Prior to 1720, slavery was 9/10's times higher among Natives (Indigenous) people than Africans imported from Africa from the slave trade.
Native Americans were reclassified as Colored (Racial Integrity Act 1924). Jim Crow Laws were a set of oppressive laws not only used for segregation but also reclassified Native American Indians into the category of Colored. Jim Crow reached its greatest influence during the decades of 1910, 1920, and 1930. Among the Jim Crow Laws were Hypo Descent laws. The laws were a responsible for the “One-Drop” Rule. Tennessee adopted the statute in 1910, and Louisiana soon followed. Then Texas and Arkansas in 1911, Mississippi in 1917, North Carolina in 1923 followed suit.
(Fact: the State of North Carolina vital records began using the law in labeling Native Americans as Colored BEFORE Walter Plecker initiated it in Virginia. Birth records were also "delayed" in states enforcing the one drop rule, they were filed late to make the racial changes.
As registrar, Dr. Walter Plecker directed the reclassification of nearly all Virginia Indians as Colored on their birth and marriage certificates because he was convinced that most Indians had African heritage and were trying to "pass" as Indians to evade segregation.
Consequently, two or three generations of Virginia Natives had their ethnic identity altered on public documents. Plecker's tampering with vital records of the Virginia Indian tribes made it impossible for descendants of six of the eight tribes recognized by the state to gain federal recognition because they could no longer prove their American Indian ancestry by documented historical continuity (Paper Genocide: http://www.papergenocide.org). White census takers during the 1800's were instructed to ignore Native American heritage and paint mostly southern states in America with either Black or White populations.
Most of the Great Plains Indians from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico were African Indigenous Americans. Forget what you have been taught in school…..even now history is being re-written and re-shaped. For example, the Lakota/Dakota were Asiatic Indians of the Great Basin, not the Great Plains.....but they are now being re-classified and re-written as Plains Indians. In the 1770's, there were 1 million Europeans inside the Americas…..and in the Great Plains there were around 5 million Indigenous Americans. Had these groups been in contact, perhaps the history of Tulapit Wapakisinep (Turtle Island - the Name for the Americas before Amerigo Vespucci put his name on the map) would have turned out differently.
Keep two things in mind: The first: 1) When did various groups of humanity stabilize? The second: 2) All life on our planet began in Africa. The species known as Homo Sapiens split into 6 Variants around 200,000 B.C. (Elongated Variant; Khartoum Variant; Nilotic Variant; Khoisan Variant; Twa Variant; and Broad West African Variant). -- In conclusion: The genotype of all humanity are those 6 African Genotypic Variants.
The later stabilization's of Africans who migrated out-of-Africa into Asia stabilized less than 20,000 years ago. Asiatic European phenotypes stabilized about 18,000 B.C. and Asiatic Oriental phenotypes stabilized 8,000 B.C. The dated groups found throughout the Americas or globally have been recorded as being present before those time periods of 18,000 B.C. In other words, European phenotypes appeared around 18,000 B.C. and Oriental phenotypes about 8,000 B.C. What that tells is that White people and Oriental people appeared much later than did the original Homo Sapiens. This also confirms Diop's studies of Orientals as admixture of Black and White.
A recent study from the University of Pittsburgh did a Native American DNA comparison in 2008 to find out how many African Americans had Native American Genes. The research study was tries to substantiate that only 4% of African Americans carry the Native American gene and negates or disclaims the Indigenous American/Negroid connection. The study goes on to say that some of the Native American DNA markers showing up in African Americans is the result of a White ancestor who was mixed with Native American, and he or she married a Black person. This evidence has no DNA, historical, or artifact evidence in support.
Not only is there DNA evidence but also a language connection between Africa and the Eastern seaboard Natives of the Americas. When examining the origin of the VAL Script (writing system), it is found very similar to the Cherokee Script and Sub-Saharan African Scripts of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mende (Tuchecherer, Konrad, Cherokee and West Africa: Examining the Origin of the VAL Script, Vol 29, 2002, p 427-486).
Genomic (chromosome) evidence indicates the Amerind Gene B, C, and D are descended from African females before they migrated out of Africa 125,000 - 200,000 years ago. Evidence of the Black presence in America exists because of relationships between the Amerind (Amerindian) and African family of languages, artifacts, and archeological evidence left behind.
The second thing to realize is that history as reported by each country around the world is politically biased and used to promote "that country's idea" about itself meaning--Countries who win the wars write the history books. Examples: Leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo were considered to be the greatest artists of all time by the Western world. Da Vinci painted Jesus White in the Last Supper and Michelangelo painted The Creation of Adam on the Sistine Chapel ceiling illustrating the Biblical creation narrative from the Book of Genesis. After 600 years of indoctrination by the Western world, who wouldn't the world think Jesus was White?
The argument exists in world history that the Vikings and Celts sailed to America before Columbus. The ancient Celts and first Vikings (early Europeans) were Black people, and the inscriptions found in North America were written by Mande speaking people from Mali who settled many parts of the Americas after 1300 A.D. The Celts were originally Black or Ethiopian people according to the ancient Greek historian Ephorus (405 BC). Tacitus, an ancient Roman historian, wrote about the Celts and the Picts being Black in 80 A.D. The Celts on the mainland of Europe were Iberians or Silures. Although the original Celts were Black, Europeans eventually claimed the name “Celt.” (Imhotep, Ph. D., David The First Americans Were Africans, 2011).
Father Eugene O’Growney discusses the history of the Celts who were Iberians--conquered by the Ligurians and procured the name “Celt.” Gaulish-speaking people conquered the Ligunians/Celts. The Gauls conquered the Ligurians and pushed them into Spain. Genetic and linguistic evidence exists that the Basque are a Niger-Congo substratum sharing personal pronouns, numerals and certain vocabulary. Genetic evidence exists linking the Basque and Niger-Congo speakers. The linguistic and genetic evidence suggests that both groups had this same ancestry of African origin (Imhotep, Ph. D., David. The First Americans Were Africans, 2011).
Africans may have been transported to the Americas as slaves, but when the enslaved Africans from the slave ships got here, Black people were already present. The research exists that tells of Abukakari II from Mali arrived 200 years before Columbus. And even before that, Africans from the era of the Egyptian Dynasties arrived between 3100 - 2100 B. C. (Ohenyan Nomad).
Luzia Woman on the right is the 11,500 year old skeleton of a Paleo-Indian woman found in a cave in Brazil. She is believed to be among the group of the first Americas immigrants and is the oldest dated skeleton found in 1975. When Columbus arrived, he enslaved the Native Americans in Cuba, Hispaniola, and the Bahamas in 1495 - 1544. Is that why Lewis and Clark (1804) needed a Black guide on their journey across the Western part of the US to communicate with other Black Native Americans?
The African Diaspora is well documented and refers to the communities throughout the world who are descended from the historic movement of people from Africa around the globe between 125,000 - 200,000 years ago. That may account for the African hair ornaments and picks found in the United States around New York and also the mounds and pyramids in Great Lakes Region, Ohio, Illinois, West Virginia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana and other areas. Haven't you ever wondered why every country has an indigenous Black population before Columbus sailed?
The Washitaw Nation was a civilization of Pyramid and Mound builders who had a maritime civilization and trade with Africa before Columbus. The Washitaw Nation, the Afro-Darienite, the Choco Region Blacks of Columbia, the Garifuna who are of pre-Columbian and prehistoric origins. The Washitaw Nation built the first empire in the Southern U.S. and the Mississippi Valley and once owned the entire Louisiana Purchase Territories, which were annexed. In 1991, the U.S. returned about 70,000 square acres after the Washitaw won a court battle.
The Black belt included an area around the globe as far north as Siberia and as far south as Australian and New Zealand. The entire area was peopled by the proto-historic Negroid racial type, which is what most Africans see Aboriginals and other Blacks in Asia and the Pacific as. Why, because there are tribes in Africa who have features identical to the Australian Aborigines, the Trobian Islanders and the Melanesians. Also, there are cultural traits found in Africa that are also found in Australia and Melanesia, India and other places.
As for the Black people of Melanesia, such as the Fijians, New Caledonia and others, they also began settling Asia and the Pacific in proto-historic times back to about 100,000 years ago, most lived in China, SE Asia and the landmass before the Mongoloids began expanding southwards and pushing the Blacks out of Asia. Yet, according to some Fijians the President of the Fijian community in Los Angles (California), some of their people were still migrating from Africa about 2000 years before Christ, While Ben Tangghamma, the former Foreign Minister of Papua New Guinea pointed in the book, The Black Untouchables of India, that all the Blacks of Asia have African roots and connections going back to proto-historic times about 100,000 years ago.
The boomerang was a common weapon for hunting small game in Africa about 10,000 to 20,000 years ago [a fact that may mean Australian Aborigines and Native Africans interacted]. Cave paintings in the Sahara which was wet during that time show hunters with boomerangs as well as bows and arrows. Do the Australian Aborigines use the bow and arrow. If no, then they may have left Africa before its invention. Another cultural trait is skin scarification. This is common in Africa as well as Melanesia and perhaps Australian as well. [Definitely in Australia].
The language spoken by Australian Aborigines have characteristics in the suffix and prefix forms that are identical to African languages [all 200 Australian Aboriginal languages?] particularly the Mende Language family, which was once widespread throughout the Sahara and was spread to India by Blacks who migrated to India in proto-historic times.
The Aborigines are related to a number of ethnic groups in Africa. Among them are the Tibbou, who have characteristics identical to Aborigines, others are the Nagas, who are spread from West Africa to Sudan to South Arabia all the way east to Indo China. The Nagas are Blacks are Negro.
Explanation for the origins of the Aborigines in the Americas were actually from Australia--The Negritoes: "The origins of the Australian Aborigines has never been a mystery to Africans. As far as Africans are concerned, the Australian Aborigines, Trobian Islanders and Melasesians are all part of the proto-historic African Diaspora. However, what we have is not a mere migration of people to Australia but a wide 'Black belt' that circled the tropical, subtropical and temperate zones even before the 'evolution' of African migrants to Europe and Asia and the gradual change due to climatic adaptation into Caucasoid and Mongoloid (sic) 'races'. The point that the Aborigines currently were a part of a much larger and wider group of people spread around the world and are the same as African Negroes. It clearly shows that although Aboriginals migrated to Australia about 100,000 years ago were among the very first groups of people to migrate out of the African continent. (See The Black Untouchables of India by V.T. Rajsher, Runoko Rashidi www.saxakali.com and Y.N. Kly, Clarity Press, Atlanta, Georgia, USA)
The Negrito--Aborigines have been referenced because their history traces to 60,000 tears ago. Many history books and scientific journals refer to the Australian Aborigines as 'Archaic White', however from the African perspective, it was the Blacks who moved into Europe and Asia who gradually adapted to the temperature and differentiated to suit the climate. Thus, Whites should be called 'archaic black' rather than saying Aborigines are 'archaic white' unless they mean that the present day 'white' population of Europe once looked like the Black Aborigines...that has been a common belief.
However, they also migrated to Europe, the Americas, East Asia and other places during the same period. According to many scientists and anthropologists who have done work on this issue, they were along with other Blacks the first people on this planet and were to be found on every continent. In fact Blacks were also in the Americas as early as 75,000 BC according to C. S. Gladwin (The Gladwin Thesis, McGraw Hill Books,1947)
The very first Blacks who went to Europe, went there about the same time Aborigines migrated to Asia, Europe and Australia. These Blacks are called 'Grimaldi Negroid'. They were homo-sapiens similar to modern humans and they were basically hunters, however their social organization and culture were advanced.
The Blacks from whom the Australian Aborigines most likely came from still live in Africa and the migration of the cousins of the Aborigines did not stop about 60,000 years ago, nor did they migrate only to India, SE Asia and Australia in proto-historic times. There is evidence that a group of Black African people called the 'Anu' who lived in northern Africa / Egypt and followed the Bear cult (5000 BC and back to proto-historic times, see the book, African Presence in Early Asia, by Ivan Van Sertima, Transaction Publications, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA). They made a series of migrations to Asia. That is documented in ancient Egyptian texts. They were related to Aboriginals and were 'Negro' in color, features and origins. Many went to northern Asia and China, others went to Japan.
People still exist today called 'Ainu' in Japan, who seem to have affinities close to Australian Aborigines and Africans and Melanesians. Anu is also a common African name and both the prefix and suffix. Today many are mixed, but a strong 'Negroid' racial characteristics can still be seen, although there is also a strong Mongoloid set of features as well. They have been said to have 'Caucasian' blood, however some experts believe they are among these Blacks who once lived throughout Eastern Asia, and who later mixed with the Mongoloid to create the Polynesians, some Filipino and other groups in Asia today. (See the text. Susu Economics The History of Pan-African Trade, Commerce, Money and Wealth, ISBN# 1-58721-454-7, 1st Books Library, 2511 West Third Street, Suite 1, Bloomington, Indiana 47404 www1stbooks.com